Single Subject Credential Program Teacher Candidate Handbook



Welcome to the Single Subject Credential Program at Sonoma State University, housed in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Secondary Education (CSSE). We, the faculty and staff of the program, congratulate you on your decision to become a teacher and we are pleased that you have chosen Sonoma State for your teacher education. We hope that you will find the program both challenging and rewarding and that you will enjoy your experience here at Sonoma State.

The Single Subject Credential Program prepares candidates to teach in K-12 single subject qualified (i.e., Art, English, Math, Music, PE, Science, Social Studies, World Language) settings from grades K to 12, although the program is primarily geared toward middle school and high school settings. The Single Subject Credential Program is fully accredited by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. When you complete the program you will be recommended for the California Single Subject Preliminary Teaching Credential in your subject area.

Any educational program has policies, procedures, standards, and expectations. Learning them all is no easy task. This Teacher Candidate Handbook is intended to help you understand the Single Subject Credential Program, how to proceed and succeed through it, how you will be supported, and where to go for help if you need it. Please make a habit of looking here for information first; if you don’t find what you need, then consult the Curriculum Studies and Secondary Education (CSSE) Department Chair, who is your program advisor. We want you to exchange ideas and learn with your peers, but please do not rely on peers to advise you on the specifics of program procedures and state regulations. These are complex and often change, and only your advisor and School of Education staff have the most up to date and reliable sources of information.

We would be happy to have your feedback on the Handbook, especially how it could be made clearer or more helpful; please submit any comments in writing to the CSSE Department Chair

Dr. Ed Lyon, Curriculum Studies and Secondary Education Department Chair

Mission & Vision of the School of Education


Advancing social justice in schools and communities through excellence in education.


The School of Education provides transformative educational experiences through teaching, research, and key initiatives. We prepare undergraduates, graduate students, and credential candidates to advocate for social justice in their learning and throughout their careers so that students, schools, and communities flourish.

Core Values

  • We believe that examining and respecting human differences is central to educational inclusivity.

  • We believe that collaboration and community partnerships strengthen our work

  • We take a critical and reflective stance in light of educational and social inequities.

  • We are committed to equity and access in education for all.

  • We promote meaningful learning through theoretically sound and research-based pedagogies.

Single Subject Program Specific Learning Outcomes 

Aligned with the Sonoma State School of Education’s Vision, Mission, and Core Values, the program helps single subject candidates: 

  • demonstrate knowledge about learners, learning, schools, and teaching that promote equity, inclusivity, and access for all.

  • recognize social inequities and  work with youth, communities, and other professionals to advocate for social justice. 

  • continuously reflect on and grow in their role as advocates for social justice.

  • collaborate with others (e.g., students, mentors,  school and community members) to strengthen their knowledge, dispositions, and practices.

  • demonstrate research-based and theoretically sound competencies and practices in their discipline

Key Faculty and Staff

Key Faculty and Staff

Listed below are the key faculty advisors, coordinators, and staff members for the Single Subject Credential Program. Please visit the School of Education contact page for a full listing of current CSSE Faculty.





CSSE Department Chair; Single Subject Program Advisor; edTPA Coordinator

Dr. Ed Lyon

Stevenson 2200

Associate Professor

Dr. Rajeev Virmani

Stevenson 2202





Placement Coordinators

Mary Gail Stablein


Olivia McCormick-Pippert


Intern Coordinator

Dr. Suzanne O’Keefe 

(Mary Gail Stablein, Fall 2023 only)  



Student Services Coordinator (questions about admission and program requirements)

Maricela Ibarra 

Stevenson Suite 2110

Credentials Analyst (questions about getting recommended for the credential)

Crescencio Torres

Stevenson Suite 2110


Subject Matter Competence and Advising

Subject Matter Competence and Advising

By the time you apply to the Single Subject Credential Program you must have completed your formal subject area preparation, using one of three options:

  1. The Subject Matter Program option consists of completing a Subject Matter Program that has been approved by the California Commission for Teacher Credentialing for the appropriate single subject credential area. Sonoma State offers approved Subject Matter Programs in English, Foundational Level General Science, Mathematics and Music. Refer to the University Catalog for a detailed description of the subject matter program in your area or speak to the Credential Analyst for other institutional options. 

  2. The Examination option consists of passing the CSET (California Subject Examination for Teachers) exam in your chosen subject area. This exam includes both multiple-choice and essay sections. Contact the Credentials Office in Stevenson 2110 and consult the CSET website ( for further information.

  3. The academic major option consists of (1) Successful completion of an academic major in the subject they will teach. The major must be in one of the subjects named in Education Code section 44257(a), 

Your subject area advisor can guide you through the process of finishing your subject area preparation and/or will certify that you have completed it. For the Examination option, you need to have official reports of your scores on the CSET, so arrange to take the tests early enough to allow time for the testing agency to return your results. The Credentials Office can supply you with test dates and application forms.  

If you are in progress of meeting the subject matter competence through one of the three options, you may (but are not guaranteed to) be admitted to the single subject credential program conditionally. If admitted conditionally, the CSSE Department Chair will notify you of your subject matter competence status within 60 days after beginning Phase I of the Single Subject Credential Program. If you still have not met subject matter competence at this point, the CSSE Department Chair will provide you with options depending on your situation (e.g., CSET testing windows and resources, courses to take, completing the extended program, withdrawing from the program).


Single Subject Credential Program Structure

Single Subject Credential Program Structure

The program consists of two phases with a total of 44 units including prerequisites. Each phase normally corresponds to one academic semester. Phase I contains academic coursework (14 units) together with 100 hours of clinical practice (4 units) in local schools. Phase II consists of an immersive student teaching assignment (12 units) accompanied by coursework to support you during your student teaching (8 units). 

Prerequisites (6 units)

All applicants must pass both prerequisites with a C or higher (NOT a C-). 

  • EDSS 417 (Formerly EDUC 417) (3 units) School & Society 

  • EDSS 418 (3 units) Development in Adolescence & Emerging Adulthood  

Course Substitutions

If you wish to use an alternative course as a prerequisite, you will need to complete the Request for Substitution form and submit it to the School of Education Credentials Office. One form is required per SSU course. Transcripts and course descriptions must accompany this form. List for alternative courses can be found on the Prerequisite page

Summer Offering

You may complete both prerequisite courses in the summer before beginning the program. However, we strongly encourage applicants to complete EDSS 417 and EDSS 418 prior to applying to the Single Subject Credential Program. 

Phase I (18 units)

Each of the Phase I courses addresses different aspects of the Teaching Performance Expectations (TPEs) described later in this section. You will be introduced to and practice how to (1) implement equitable practices within teaching and the institution of education as a whole, (2) create effective learning communities, (3) draw on knowledge of students, families, standards, and curricula to for content-specific planning, instruction, and assessment, and (4) support language and literacy development through your content area (including using translanguaging to support biliteracy development and fostering digital literacies). Each course includes assignments that help candidates better observe and participate in their clinical practice as well as draw on their clinical practice observation and participation to deepen their coursework learning. These assignments include a context for learning (EDSS 442), Classroom Management Plan (EDSS 443B), Teacher Learning Cycles, and a Unit Frame. Throughout, the focus is on social justice and teaching diverse learners. 

  • EDSS 442 (3 units) Equity and Agency in Teaching and Learning

  • EDSS 443A (4 units) Creating Effective Learning Communities: Field Settings

  • EDSS 443B (3 units) Creating Effective Learning Communities: Seminar

  • EDSS 444 (4 units) Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

  • EDSS 446 (4 units) Language and Literacy Development in Secondary Classrooms

Teacher Learning Cycles (TLCs). During Phase I, candidates complete two assignments that involve planning, implementing, and analyzing a learning activity in their clinical practice. These Teacher Learning Cycles (or TLCs) reflect our practice-based and justice-oriented approach to teacher learning by bridging coursework and clinical practice to help candidates analyze their own teaching as they will also do during edTPA and as reflective practitioners. 

Phase II (20 units)

To advance to Phase II you must complete all Phase I courses with a C or better. You must also have a 3.0 or greater GPA (including prerequisite courses). Finally, you must have the recommendation of your mentor teacher/District Employed Supervisor. 

Phase II consists of an immersive student teaching assignment accompanied by a seminar and applied content-specific curriculum, instruction, and assessment course with your fellow candidates to support you during student teaching and the edTPA performance assessment. You will become fully immersed in the culture of the school where you did your observation/participation. You will assume full responsibility for daily teaching in two classes throughout the semester and spend at least two more periods involved in other classes and school activities. For at least four consecutive weeks of the student teaching semester, you will engage in a teaching immersion experience. The four-week immersion consists of an intensive student teaching experience that completes the formal teacher education program and prepares you to enter directly into a full-time teaching position.

  • EDSS 444B (1 unit) Applied Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

  • EDSS 458 (12 units) Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings

  • EDSS 459 (4 units) Seminar: Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings

  • EDSP 430 (3 units ) Introduction to Special Education

edTPA (Teaching Performance Assessment). 

A teaching performance assessment (TPA) is required for all those seeking a single subject teaching credential in California. edTPA is the teaching performance assessment used by the SSU Single Subject Program. During Phase II, teacher candidates submit online a portfolio of materials centered around a consecutive 3-5 days of teaching (what we call at Sonoma State a “learning segment”). These materials are organized around the following 3 tasks: 

  • Task 1: Planning (lesson plans; written responses to prompts about their planning for diverse learners)
  • Task 2: Instruction (unedited video recording of the CANDIDATE teaching; written responses to prompts that analyze and provide evidence of effective teaching for diverse learners).
  • Task 3: Assessment (planned assessment and rubric; sample student work from diverse learners; written responses to prompts that analyze student learning)

Tasks are scored by subject-specific, trained edTPA scorers who are external to Sonoma State. Candidates must obtain a passing score on the edTPA to receive a passing grade for EDSS 459 and to be recommended for a preliminary teaching credential. Otherwise, candidates will receive a “RP” for EDSS 459.  If edTPA is passed after the spring semester is over, then the candidate must submit verification of the score to the CSSE Department Chair, who will change the EDSS 459 grade and notify the credentialing analyst. 

The Table below summarizes the coursework, clinical practice, and program wide assignments/experiences that bridge coursework to clinical practice during each Phase. 


Program Wide Assignments/Experiences to Bridge Coursework and 

Clinical Practice

  Clinical Practice

FALL (Phase 1)

EDSS 442: Equity and Agency in Teaching and Learning  (3 units)


EDSS 443B: Creating Effective Learning Communities - Seminar (3 units)


EDSS 444: Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment - Art, English, Math, Music, Science, Social Studies, or World Language (4 units)


EDSS 446: Language and Literacy Development in Secondary Settings (4 units) 

Context for Learning Assignment (EDSS 442)


Classroom Management Plan (EDSS 443B)


Teacher Learning Cycle #1: Eliciting Student Ideas (EDSS 444)


Teacher Learning Cycle #2: Subject-Specific Pedagogy and Technology Integration (all courses)


Unit Frame and Commentary (EDSS 444 and EDSS 446)

EDSS 443A: Creating Effective Learning Communities - Field Experience  (4 units)

  • 100 hours of structured observation/participation (minimum of 6-8 hours per week)

  • 2-3 supervision observations/debriefs

SPRING (Phase 2)

EDSS 459: Seminar for Secondary Student Teachers (4 units)


EDSS 444B: Applied Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment - Art, English, Math, Music, Science, Social Studies, or World Language (1 unit) 


EDSS 430: Intro to Special Education (3 units)

Learning Segment: - 3-5 instructional hours planned to be taught in Mid February-early March for edTPA (EDSS 444B). Candidates submit to their 444B and 459 instructor for approval prior to edTPA videotaping. for edTPA


edTPA: Candidates typically sSubmit the(typically 1st week in April)

EDSS 458: Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings (12 units)

  • Teach or co-teach in  2 classes

  • Assist in 2 additional classes (or equivalent # of hours) 

  • 4 week consecutive immersion experience (whole school day)

  • 6-8 university supervisor observations/debriefs 


Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions


EDSS 417: School and Society (3 units) (Fall/Spring/Summer)(OR approved alternative coursework)

A critical examination of current issues in today's schools and future directions in education through the perspectives of history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and the politics of education.

Content includes: trends, movements and issues of the development of our present-day school systems and current educational practice; development of an individual philosophy of education through examination and evaluation of philosophies from early Greek through modern/post-modern thought; analysis of American society and its effect on the functioning of schools; the role of explicit and implicit cultural assumptions in educational contexts; and the influence of federal, state and local governing agencies, the knowledge industry and special-interest groups on education.

Grade only.

EDSS 418: Development in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood (3 units) (Fall/Spring/Summer)

An analysis of adolescent development and contemporary adolescent experiences as it addresses the central question of how adolescents differ from adults and children in terms of development. Examination of specific dimensions of adolescent development include physical, cognitive, psychological, social, sexual, moral, and spiritual. Course content is appropriate for those planning to pursue careers in psychology, counseling, social work, and education. Restricted to: juniors, seniors CRED, CREDC, CREDP, CRED2, plan of EDUC-MA and to credential student group (RUCR).


EDSS 442: Equity and Agency in Teaching and Learning (3 units) (Fall)

Course explores theory, research and pedagogy related to teaching and learning in heterogeneous, secondary classroom settings. Concerns and experiences common to all teachers are addressed. The course focuses on issues of social justice and ways to implement equitable practices within teaching and the institution of education as a whole. Grade only. Prerequisites: admission to the Single Subject Credential Program, EDUC 417, and EDUC 418.

EDSS 443A: Creating Effective Learning Communities: Field Settings (4 units) (Fall)

Focused and systematic observation and structured participation, including co-teaching and limited solo teaching, in heterogeneous, secondary classroom settings leading to a supervised student teaching experience. Cr/NC only. Prerequisites: admission to the Single Subject Credential Program, EDUC 417, EDSS 418. Must be taken concurrent with EDUC 443B.

EDSS 443B: Creating Effective Learning Communities: Seminar (3 units) (Fall)

Emphasizes positive approaches to discipline consistent with restorative justice and trauma-sensitive approaches. Guides students’ observations with emphasis on classroom management and provides continuity between the Single Subject program and observation placements. Prepares students for successful student teaching via classroom management plans. Prerequisites: EDUC 417, EDSS 418. Concurrent with EDSS 443A.

EDSS 444: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment (4 units) (Fall)

Students learn to organize curriculum, plan instruction and engage in formative assessment using appropriate content and language/literacy standards. Practices that support diverse learners in secondary classrooms are experienced, analyzed and approximated. Prerequisites: EDUC 417, EDSS 418; admission to the Single Subject Credential Program. Grade only. May be repeated for credit.

EDSS 446: Language and Literacy Development in Secondary Classrooms (4 units) (Fall/Spring)

Principles, methods, and materials for guiding disciplinary and digital literacy in secondary classroom settings. Includes development theory and current issues in reading/language pedagogy for first and second language learners. Grade only. Prerequisites: admission to the Single Subject or Education Specialist Credential Program, EDUC 417, EDSS 418, or permission of instructor.


EDSP 430: Special Education for Teachers (3 units) (Spring)

Students with disabilities are members of school communities around the nation and must be educated to the extent possible with their peers. Special education theory, pedagogy, legislation, public policy, and advocacy related to the education and inclusion of students with special needs into the least restrictive environment are introduced.

Eligibility categories in special education, characteristics of students with disabilities, and implications for teaching are discussed. Evidence-based practices, such as Universal Design for Learning, Multi-tiered systems of support, and assistive technology will be introduced. Thirty hours of required field experience are an integral part of the course.

Students enrolled in credential programs only. Grade only.

EDSS 444B: Applied Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment (1 unit).

Students practice and apply what they learned from EDSS 444 about organizing curriculum, planning instruction, and assessing student learning  using appropriate content and language/literacy standards. Students will develop a multi-day learning segment, analyze videotaped lessons, and interpret student work from their student teaching assignment. Prerequisite(s): EDSS 417, EDSS 418, EDSS 444, Admission to Single Subject Credential Program

EDSS 458: Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings (12 units) (Spring)

A supervised teaching experience in a multicultural middle, junior high, or senior high school setting under the guidance of a mentor teacher and a university supervisor.

Assignment consists of four teaching periods and two preparation periods daily. Two teaching periods entail full student teaching responsibility as outlined in the Single Subject Handbook. Two teaching periods consist of assisting the mentor teacher and/or limited teaching responsibilities in a supplemental authorization subject area. Student teachers may team-teach in some or all of the classes. Complete all requirements for the edTPA Performance Assessment. CR/NC only. Prerequisites: successful completion of all Phase I courses, EDSP 430. Must be taken concurrently with EDSS 459.

EDSS 459: Seminar: Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings (4 units) (Spring)

This seminar supports student teacher candidates during their student teaching semester. The course provides opportunities for candidates to exhibit and examine their teaching competence in regard to classroom management, curricular planning, instructional strategies for diverse learners, assessment, and professional development. Candidates assemble a teaching portfolio. The weekly seminar prepares candidates for the edTPA Performance Assessment Teaching Event, a summative performance assessment of the candidate's demonstrated ability to plan, implement, and assess a significant segment of teaching. Successful completion of the edTPA Performance Assessment will be required to earn a California Preliminary Single Subject Credential. Grade only. Prerequisites: successful completion of all Phase I courses, EDSP 433. Must be taken concurrently with EDSS 458.

Clinical Practice

Clinical Practice

Much of this information about clinical practice can also be found in the CSSE Handbook for Supervisors and Mentors HERE. Please note that this Clinical Practice Structure and Support (including supervision) is the same for those in the Standard Pathway and those in the Intern Pathway. 

Phase I (Fall) Clinical Practice: EDSS 443A - Creating Effective Learning Communities: Field Settings (4 units) 

Goals for Teacher Candidates

In Phase I clinical practice, candidates engage in focused and systematic observation and structured participation, including co-teaching and limited solo teaching under the supervision of a mentor teacher/district employed supervisor (total of 100 hours). A university supervisor assigned to the candidate orientates the candidate and  mentor teacher/district employed supervisor to clinical practice goals, structure, roles, and expectations. By the end of Phase 1 clinical practice, the learning outcomes of single subject teacher candidates are as followed: 

  • Identify knowledge of students, families, and communities (e.g., academic preparation, language and literacy skills in English and languages other than English, IEP and 504 plans, lived experiences, home-community funds of knowledge) to inform and leverage for student teaching

  • Notice and reflect on a variety of teaching contexts and approaches through structured observation and participation

  • Begin to plan and teach learning activities that identify learning goals, elicit student ideas and lived experiences, engage in subject specific pedagogies, support language/biliteracy development, and integrate technology  

  • Begin to critically self-analyze teaching and determine next instructional steps 

  • Articulate how observed learning and goals and lessons are structured and sequenced over the span of multiple weeks to support and assess ongoing student learning and  language/biliteracy development


The University Supervisor is ultimately responsible for assigning the grade (Credit or No Credit) for EDSS 443A. However, the University Supervisor verifies completion of EDSS 443A requirements in consultation with the Mentor Teacher. Toward the end of Fall semester, the University Supervisor will send Mentor Teachers an online survey to (1) verify the candidate’s professionalism and completion of 100 hours of supervised clinical practice and to (2) recommend (or recommend with reservation) that teacher candidates advance to student teaching. If candidates are not recommended, then the CSSE Department Chair will consult with the mentor teacher, university supervisor, and placement coordinator for next steps.

The table below details teacher candidate participation requirements and assessment/verification of requirements. 

Teacher Candidate Participation


Assessment/Verification of Requirements:

  • Participate in instructional activities (observing, assisting, co-teaching, and teaching) for a minimum of 6-8 hours/week for the whole semester in your assigned mentor(s) classroom(s).

  • Observe other teachers at the placement site in your subject area, as well as in other subject areas and settings (including English/Academic Language Development, Special Education classes). Teachers at other school sites may be observed with permission of the university supervisor and school site. 

  • Meet and communicate regularly with your Mentor Teacher(s).

  • Communicate regularly with your university supervisor and respond promptly to university supervisor communication   

  • Carry out and share the two Teacher Learning Cycle (TLC) assignments with your Mentor Teacher and University Supervisor. Instructions will be provided in your EDSS 444 course (or your university supervisor if you are not taking EDSS 444). 

  • Teacher Learning Cycles: Formative feedback provided by your University Supervisor and by your Mentor Teacher.

  • One Mentor Teacher observation of subject matter pedagogy (supervisor will send a list of subject specific elements. Mentor will verify on recommendation form).

  • Verification of participation in 100 hours of field experience (candidates share a log with their  University Supervisor after Week 7 and at the end of the semester).

  • Recommendation to move onto student teaching by your Mentor Teacher submitted online.


Suggested Timeline for Phase 1 Clinical Practice (standard pathway)

(TC: Teacher Candidates;  MT: Mentor Teacher/District Employed Supervisor; US: University Supervisor)


What and Who? 

Prior to start of SSU Fall Semester

TC: Contact MT to introduce his/her/their self. Observe at school site as negotiated by TC and MT. 


MT: Welcome TC to the school and the classroom (i.e., orient to school policies and classroom procedures, introduce them to school personnel, provides teacher candidate with access to curriculum, texts, planning guides, technology/school communication) 


US: Contact TC and MT to introduce his/her/their self. Schedules orientation with the entire group of TCs and MTs. Helps TC and MT set up observation/participation schedule (minimum of 6-8 hours a week, including some consecutive days)

Weeks 1-2

Phase 1 Clinical Practice Orientation (virtual or in person) facilitated by university supervisor

Weeks 3-4

US and TC together observe part of MT lesson and debrief; 

Triad Meeting #1 (TC, MT, US): Discuss expectations for TLCs and other teaching/co-teaching opportunities 

Weeks 5-9

TC completes Teacher Learning Cycle (TLC) #1 through EDSS 444


US conducts formal observation #1 of this TLC or similar activities focused on eliciting student ideas in small groups


US checks in with MT and TC individually on  progress (i.e., professionalism, hours). 

Weeks 10-14

TC completes Teacher Learning Cycle (TLC) #2 through EDSS 444 and used for other course assignments


US conducts debrief (in person or virtual) of video from TLC #2 

Week 14-Finals

Triad Meeting #2 (TC, MT, US): Reach consensus of TC professionalism and readiness for student teaching; identify areas of growth for student teaching; Establish Phase 2 teaching schedule; verify completion of 100 hours


TC submits final observation log to University Supervisor


MT submits recommendation via online survey


US submits grade (Credit/No Credit)


Links to Key Phase 1 Clinical Practice Documents

  • Assessment of Subject Matter Pedagogies






Social Science


World Language


Phase 2 Field Experience: EDSS 458 - Student Teaching in Multicultural Settings (12 units)

Goals for Teacher Candidates

During Phase 2, teacher candidates complete a semester-long supervised student teaching assignment (340 hours total). The student teaching assignment consists of four key components:

  • Two teaching periods of full responsibility (co-teaching is still considered full responsibility) - 140 hours

  •  Two additional teaching periods (or equivalent # of hours) of guided teaching - 140 hours

  • edTPA planning, instruction/video-taping, and student work analysis

  • Four week immersion experience - 100 hours

By the end of Phase 2 clinical practice, the learning outcomes of single subject teacher candidates are to meet Teaching Performance Expectations, Literacy Teaching Performance Expectations, and Subject Specific Pedagogies as would be expected for a beginning teacher


Credit is assigned by your university supervisor based on the following.

  • Verification of clinical practice teaching and assisting hours 

  • Verification of completion of Clinical Practice Immersion Experience Reflection 

  • Recommendation from the mentor teacher 




  • Teach or co-teach two classes in your subject area with one or more mentor teachers for the whole semester. While you can teach the same course for both classes, we encourage you to teach two different preps (i.e., different courses and/or grade levels) 

  • Document hours 

  • Meet, plan, analyze/grade student work, and debrief regularly with your mentor teacher(s)

  • Communicate regularly and prompt with your university supervisor (schedule 6-8 observations and debriefs; schedule three triad (i.e., mentor/ mentee/supervisor) meetings

  • Carry out and submit the edTPA; instructions will be provided in the EDSS 459 seminar


10 hours of instruction (5 per class) for at least  12 weeks of the semester  = 10 x 12 

= 120 hours



  • Midterm review discussed during 2nd triad meeting (formative only)

  • Final evaluation discussed during 3rd triad meeting and submitted online by mentor teacher

    • Final evaluation of TPEs, subject-specific pedagogy, and literacy practices 

    • Individualized Development Plan (IDP)

  • University Supervisor verifies the completion of the student teaching and assisting hours 


Assist in two additional classes (or equivalent # of hours per week). These classes can differ over the course of the semester. We encourage you to assist in classes that differ from your student teaching, including ELD/ALD and special education classes.  


10 hours of instruction (5 per class) for at least  12 weeks of the semester  = 10 x 12 = 120 hours. 



  • Mentor teacher submits verification that candidate assisted in two additional classes (or equivalent # of hours) (survey sent to Mentor Teachers at end of spring semester).


  • Spend the entire day at your school site during a CONSECUTIVE four-week period (the “Four Week Immersion”). You can either teach or co-teach or assist in one additional class (total = five classes). Attend department/school meetings; school assemblies; IEP meetings, etc. 

  • Complete the “Four Week Immersion Reflection” (see Appendix B, 4-Week Immersion Verification Form). 


25 hours per week for 4 weeks = 100 hours



  • Mentor teacher submits verification of dates and hours for completing the Four Week Immersion (survey sent to Mentor Teachers at end of spring semester).

  • University Supervisor verifies (Complete or incomplete) that candidate completes task for the Four Week Immersion Reflection (discussed during an observation debrief)


In conjunction with the university supervisor, the mentor teacher will complete two (2) evaluations of the teacher candidate: one at mid-semester and one at the end of the semester for the purpose of final evaluation of clinical practice. Both evaluations will be completed using the SSU Single Subject Evaluation of clinical practice Performance form (forms accessible under key documents below)  At mid-semester, the form is completed by the mentor teacher and university supervisor and is used as the basis for a three-way meeting between the teacher candidate, mentor teacher(s) and university supervisor to discuss the candidate’s progress and to set goals for further development. University supervisors will provide a copy of the form for this purpose. The form is used again at the end of the semester for the final evaluation and is submitted to the School of Education by the mentor teacher(s), after conferring with the university supervisor. A link to the final evaluation of clinical practice performance form will be provided to all mentor teachers towards the end of the spring semester for the purposes of referring the teacher candidate for the single subjects credential. Both the mentor teacher and university should expect to write a letter of recommendation upon request of the teacher candidate.

Suggested Timeline for Phase 2 Clinical Practice (standard pathway)

(TC: Teacher Candidates;  MT: Mentor Teacher/District Employed Supervisor; US: University Supervisor)


What and Who? 

Prior to start of SSU Spring Semester

TC: Be prepared to start teaching 2 classes with full responsibility, following the school site’s calendar. 

US: Contacts Teacher candidate Mentor Teacher and to introduce or reintroduce his/her/their self; check in on questions/support needed for first weeks of student teaching. 

MT: Provides teacher candidate with curricular and technology resources (planning  guides, texts, access to materials/supplies, attendance procedure, technology/school communication) 

Weeks 1-3

  • Phase 2 Clinical Practice Orientation (virtual or in person) facilitated by university supervisor

  • TC must begin guided teaching by now. 

  • TC plans lessons for edTPA and finishes planning commentary (task 1)

  • US Direct observation:  “Creating and Maintaining Learning Environment” (TPE 2)

Weeks 4-8

  • US Direct observation: Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning (TPE 3)

  • MT direction observation #1 of subject specific pedagogy

  • TC teaches and videotapes lessons for edTPA during this time (TC must get approval from EDSS 458 instructor before videotaping)

Weeks 9

TC works on edTPA instruction commentary (Task 2) and assessment commentary (Task 3)


Sonoma State Spring Break

Weeks 10

TC submits the entire edTPA portfolio (must follow submission deadlines, typically 1st week in April). TC can be excused from guiding teaching responsibilities this week of making adequate progress toward 340 hours. 

Weeks 11-13

  • US Direct observation of “Assessing Student Learning” (TPE 5) and “Literacy Practices”

  • MT observation #2 of Single Subject pedagogy

Weeks 14-15

  • US Direct observation  based upon  “Candidate goals from midpoint review”

  • Triad meeting #3 (Final Review). 


  • Candidate submits final observation log to University Supervisor

  • Mentor Teacher submits recommendation online

  • Supervisor submits grade (Credit/No Credit)

  • TC continues Full Responsibility teaching for the remainder of school site academic year. Can continue guided teaching if hours are still needed to meet 340. 


Links to Phase 2 Clinical Practice Documents






Social Science


World Language


Important Notes on Clinical Practice Hours 

  • Some schools have a true block schedule in which each class meets for approximately 2 hours a day for 5 days a week. In these cases, teacher candidates would Teach 1 block (10 hours per week) and assist in 1 block (10 hours per week).   

  • Candidates in a residency program are required to be at their school site ~18 hours/week during Phase 1 (3 days a week) and ~30-32 hours/week a Week During Phase 2 (4-5 days a week). The hours for the Phase 2 “immersion” experience will be automatically met, but candidates must still complete and get verified  the immersion activities by the end of student teaching. In Phase 1, Residents should never accrue more than 20 hours in any given week. Residents all follow their school site’s calendar for the entire school year. 

  • Candidates in the Intern Pathway meet the same 340 hour requirement. However, at least 44 of these hours must be with mentor teacher and university supervisor support/mentoring and/or observation. In addition, teacher candidates in the intern pathway must receive 15 hours of English Learner (EL) support via your site-based assigned Mentor Teacher (some of these hours could have occurred in the Fall if documented). 

  • What CAN Count as Clinical Practice Hours? While the number of hours spent teaching and assisting should allow you to meet the required 340 hours, we do accept the following as clinical practice hours in case hours need to be made up due to illness, taking care of family members, etc. Please inform and arrange these hours with your mentor and university supervisor. 

    • Co-planning lessons with the Mentor Teacher(s) 

    • Working with Mentor Teacher(s), grading and analyzing student work, reflecting on lessons, and planning for the needs of individual students;

    • Engaging in professional learning communities and/or grade level and department meetings under the guidance of the Mentor Teacher;

    • Holding office hours, tutorials, advisory sessions and make up testing for students in your assigned periods of teaching or assisting;

    • Planning for and monitor/evaluate asynchronous student work (for your periods of instruction for which you are responsible);

    • Meeting with Mentor Teacher and/or University Supervisor.

  • ​​What does NOT count as hours? 
    • Planning lessons without direct supervision of your mentor

    • Grading/analyzing student work without direction supervision of your mentor

    • Substitute teaching

edTPA (Teacher Performance Assessment) 

The edTPA Performance Assessment Teaching Event is a subject-specific portfolio-based assessment of teaching performance that is completed by teacher candidates to demonstrate their readiness for a full-time classroom teaching assignment. It is aligned with the California Teaching Performance Expectations and the relevant California student academic content standards and/or curriculum framework. Information for mentor teachers on how to support the teacher candidate’s successful completion of the edTPA requirement during Phase II of the program is accessible on the edTPA website at:

Teacher candidates must successfully complete the edTPA Performance Assessment Teaching Event during their teacher preparation program. Evidence of teaching competence consists of artifacts documenting teaching and learning during a learning segment lasting approximately one week and commentaries explaining, analyzing, and reflecting on the artifacts. In constructing the Teaching Event, candidates apply what they have learned from their coursework about research, theory, and instructional strategies related to teaching and learning.

Teacher Candidate Expectations during Clinical Practice

  • Accept clinical practice responsibilities in the classroom as outlined by their program during the school year. 

  • Complete clinical practice experience in which you will report to your site at the same time in which in-service teachers are required to report for work, teach and assist in your regular periods of instruction and complete other responsibilities as outlined in your program section below.

  • Participate in whatever before or after school activities that are required of the in-service teaching staff at your school site. 

  • Schedule no personal commitments, employment responsibilities, or extra- curricular assignments which conflict with normal school site duties or with the clinical practice seminar.

  • Submit to the mentor teacher an overview of plans for the semester as well as detailed lesson plans for the first week of instruction in each clinical practice assignment before assuming full teaching responsibility in that assignment.

  • Continue to submit written lesson plans to each mentor teacher and university supervisor according to a mutually agreeable schedule.

  • Confer regularly with each mentor teacher and with the university supervisor.

  • Attend department/staff meetings at your field site as requested by your Program.

  • Become familiar with the procedures and culture of the school by participating in other school activities as appropriate.

  • Attend all required teacher activities.

  • Become familiar with all types of administrative and management procedures and forms used by classroom teachers in the school.

  • List your current address, telephone number and emergency contact information with the school secretary.

  • Check in at the front office each day you are at your field site.

  • Educate yourself on the emergency procedures at your field site.

  • Follow established school procedures in reporting illness and providing lesson plans for your replacement. A leave of absence other than illness or emergency must be approved in advance by the mentor teacher, school administration, and university supervisor.

  • Be professional in appearance and manner. Although there may be no explicit dress code for teachers, there are usually unwritten codes of acceptable dress in each school.

  • Complete any feedback and evaluation forms as requested by your Program.

  • Contribute to ongoing program development through informal feedback and formal written program evaluation.

  • Candidates should be available at their field sites during the hours required by their program and are encouraged to participate in all school activities. It is strongly recommended that you also become involved in extra-curricular activities (e.g. dances, clubs, sports, field trips, etc.)

  • Set and maintain a field site placement schedule with your mentor. Contact your Supervisor and Mentor for any changes or deviations needed.

  • Not enroll in any university courses other than those outlined by your program, unless with approval from your program’s department chair.

Students who disagree with the Department Chair’s decision may meet with the Dean of the School of Education. If the Dean and the student do not come to a satisfactory resolution, the student may appeal the decision through the SSU Student Grievance Policy.

Professional Expectations of Teacher Candidates and “What Happens When…?”

Professional Expectations of Teacher Candidates and “What Happens When…?” 

Throughout prerequisites, program courses, and clinical practice, candidates shall demonstrate personality and character traits that satisfy the standards of the teaching profession as well as the core values outlined in the School of Education Mission and Vision Statements. Since teaching is a profession rooted in developing relationships and since teachers are held to high professional standards and behaviors, the School of Education expects all teacher education candidates to demonstrate professional behavior in all components of the teacher credential program.

As a student in the credential program, you are considered a representative of the University and of the School of Education. We take seriously that you are matriculating in a professional preparation program, that your preparation will involve close contact with minor age students and that you are a guest in your Mentor Teacher’s classroom and in the field site where you are placed for student teaching. As a Teacher Candidate in the Single Subject Credential Program, you must adhere to the Sonoma State University Student Code of Conduct, as well as the Single Subjects Credential Program Code of Ethics which describes the expectations for your professional behavior while on the Sonoma State University campus and at your field placement site. Please note: There will be repercussions for failing to uphold the student code of conduct and the credential program code of ethics for professional and ethical standards.

Please read over the following information carefully. Your EDSS 443B instructor will refer to this information during the first few weeks of the semester to ensure you have read and understood these expectations. For more information about these standards please see the following sources for descriptions of appropriate, professional behavior in the teaching profession: the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Rules of Conduct and the National Education Association Code of Ethics.

Sonoma State University Regulations and Policies pertaining to Code of Student Conduct, Cheating and Plagiarism, Student Code of Conduct, and Other Related Policies 

Single Subject Credential Program Teacher Candidate Code of Ethics for Clinical Practice

  • All information which the teacher candidate receives about students in her/his/their class or school is to be kept confidential. (See the following section for more details.)

  • The teacher candidate should be more concerned with what is being achieved with the students than with the impressions being made on the mentor teacher or university supervisor.

  • The teacher candidate should maintain the dignity necessary to gain the students’ respect.

  • The teacher candidate should show enthusiasm concerning pupils’ learning experiences.

  • The teacher candidate should be sympathetic and courteous toward all students.

  • The teacher candidate should consider her/him/theirself a member of the community in which she/he/they is/are teaching and act accordingly.

  • Disciplinary measures used by the student teacher should conform to the disciplinary regulations of the school.

  • The teacher candidate must be an example to her/his/their students in every way—physically, socio emotionally, and ethically.

  • The teacher candidate should be just as interested in and as ready to assist with the improvement of a class as if it were her/his/their own.

  • The teacher candidate must realize that each student is an individual and must take into consideration individual abilities, interests, out-of-school lived experiences, identities, ways of thinking, etc. that shape how they learn.

  • The teacher candidate must be completely impartial in dealing with students and must constantly strive to be fair while judging students’ actions.

  • The teacher candidate should refrain from imposing her/his/their religious or political views upon students and should exhibit a broadminded, tolerant attitude toward other groups and individuals.

The teacher candidate code of ethics is not an absolute standard. Like any code, it will need to be interpreted with the actual experience as the context. If the mentor teacher and the student teacher make a conscious effort to adhere to ethical practice from the beginning, a more responsible teacher will emerge.


It is important to understand that the confidential records of others represent a highly sensitive area. In recognition of this sensitivity, Congress passed the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, which made explicit the principles of confidentiality summarized below.

The communication of confidential information to another person except within the authorized educational framework is a violation of individual rights which have legal protection and may lead to serious consequences. Student teachers are advised that they are not to discuss information derived from the educational records of students with anyone except authorized personnel, including the responsible instructors, concerned administrative personnel, or individuals responsible for student personnel or health services. The use of confidential information concerning students for discussion in university classes, whether or not the students are individually identified, may also constitute a violation of privilege and should be handled with extreme caution.

It is an established legal principle that access to the records of another person may be necessary for individuals in certain types of positions in order for them to do their job. However, in granting such privilege, the courts have consistently imposed a strict duty on those to whom privilege is granted to protect the confidentiality of the information to which they have access.

While student teachers may be permitted access to certain student records under responsible control, care must be taken to protect the confidentiality of any and all information contained in such records. As a student teacher you will at times have access to student information such as test scores, teacher reports, or even verbal comments. All such information comes under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, which protects its confidentiality.

Without belaboring the technicalities of this Act, we advise student teachers to protect themselves against violation of the Act as well as the tenets of professional ethics by observing the following principles:

  • Treat all knowledge of students in strictest confidence.

  • Discuss student information only with your mentor teacher, and ask him/her what you may or may not do with such information.

  • Keep a tight lip when students are discussed in the teachers’ room or anywhere else.

  • Guard carefully any records entrusted to you, such as grade books, rosters of test scores, etc. Do not leave them where they might escape your possession.

What to do in Case of…

  • Illness or Emergency: Your school will have standard procedures for dealing with teachers’ unexpected absence due to illness or emergency. Become familiar with these procedures and adhere to them. Note that such procedures usually require you to provide some guidance for what a substitute teacher is to do in your place. Any absence due to illness or emergency must be reported to your university supervisor.

  • Leaves: Any planned absence from your clinical practices duties must be approved in advance by your mentor teacher, school site administrator, and university supervisor. Such leaves are rare but may be approved for attendance at education conferences, in-service workshops, or other professional development activities.

  • Work actions: If your school is involved in a strike or other work action, you are not obliged to enter the school grounds or to perform your assigned duties. You should immediately contact the Department Chair for the Single Subject Credential Program for instructions. Your clinical practice assignment at that school is considered suspended for the duration of the work action, and the period of the work action will be disregarded in your evaluation and grading by university faculty. If it appears that the work action will be prolonged, you may be placed in another school to continue your clinical practice.

School of Education Wide Procedures for Handling Problems 

In our programs, we are preparing future educators and as such we expect them to behave in a manner that is consistent with the generally accepted norms of educator professional conduct. If our students are conducting themselves in a manner not fitting with professional educator standards, then it needs to be addressed.     

  1. The teacher candidate, the Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES) or the school site administrator notifies the university supervisor as soon as a concern arises. A concern is defined as any single egregious action or a repeated pattern of actions that do not conform with the expectations of professional educators or violate student codes of conduct as defined by Sonoma State University or the program student handbook.

  2. The university supervisor holds a two-way or three-way conference with the teacher candidate and/or Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES) to discuss concerns and find solutions.

  3. The university supervisor notifies the department chair of the problem using the student of concern form

  4. If problems continue, first review the student's history of other issues of concern. Then,  the university supervisor schedules a formal three-way conference with the teacher candidate and Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES). This conference is to result in clear identification of the problems and development of specific, written plans for resolution (e.g. a written contract signed by the teacher candidate, Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES) and university supervisor)

  5. The university supervisor notifies in writing the teacher candidate, the Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES), the school site administrator, and the department chair of the problems and the plans for resolution.

  6. If the plan for resolution is not followed or is unsuccessful in resolving the problems, the university supervisor consults the department chair to determine alternate solutions (e.g., visitation/assessment by another supervisor, change of placement, extension of program courses, repeating clinical practice, removal from program etc.) and next steps for this case.

Repeating Clinical Practice

In circumstances where the teacher candidate is unable to complete the clinical practice successfully as outlined in the program specific sections in this document, and their performance indicates potential for further progress, provisions may be made for repeating the clinical practice. The decision to extend or repeat the clinical practice course is made collaboratively between the university supervisor, the Mentor Teacher (MT)/District Employed Supervisors (DES), and the department chair. In cases where disagreement exists, the department chair will make the final decision.

Removal Of A Teacher Candidate From Clinical Practice

When the steps above have failed to result in improvement or when a situation is untenable, the immediate removal of a teacher candidate from clinical practice may be required.  When a teacher candidate is removed from clinical practice, a number of options are available for action subsequent to the removal.

  1. The teacher candidate may be removed from the program

    1. If this option is chosen, the department chair is responsible for working with the university supervisor and program faculty to determine the actions to be taken, and meeting with the student to inform them of termination from the program. The coordinator must notify the department chair in writing the causes for student termination from the program. The department chair must notify in writing all appropriate persons and offices (see below) that the student has been removed from the field experience and terminated from the program. The coordinator maintains all records supporting the decision by the faculty to remove the student from the field experience and the program

  2. The teacher candidate may be placed immediately in another clinical practice with specified stipulations and requirements.

    1. If this option is chosen, the department chair is responsible for working with the university supervisor and program faculty to determine the actions to be taken and conditions for the teacher candidate’s continuation in the program. The university supervisor must notify in writing all appropriate persons and offices (see below) that the teacher candidate  has been removed from the field placement and specify agreements regarding replacement and conditions/requirements for the  teacher candidate’s continuation in the program. The university supervisor maintains all records supporting the decision by the faculty to remove the student from the field placement. 

    2. If this option is chosen, the student will receive a no-credit (NC) grade for the first placement and must re-register for the new field placement. The student is expected to complete the repeat placement in the semester immediately following the semester of the original placement. A student may repeat a placement once; if he or she does not meet specified requirements and/or is not successful in that placement, termination from the program is likely.

    3. After a second clinical practice placement is unsuccessful, the Department Chair may discuss other options with the student and consider program removal.

Immediate Termination of Program Enrollment

When the presence of the teacher candidate is detrimental to the classroom or when performance does not meet minimum standards after every effort has been made to resolve identified problems, the teacher candidate’s enrollment in the program may be terminated, effective immediately, at any point during the assignment.

School of Education Nondiscrimination Policy

California State University does not discriminate on the basis of age, genetic information, marital status, medical condition, nationality, race or ethnicity (including color, caste and ancestry), religion (or religious creed), and veteran or military status [in all education programs and activities operated by the University (both on and off campus), in all education programs and activities operated by the University (both on and off campus), including admissions, retention, graduation and the awarding of credentials – as these terms are defined in Interim CSU Policy Prohibiting Discrimination, Harassment, Sexual Misconduct, Sexual Exploitation, Dating Violence, Domestic Violence, Stalking and Retaliation in its programs and activities, including admission and access. Federal and state laws, including Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the California Equity in Higher Education Act, prohibit such discrimination. Please see SSU's Catalog for a complete statement of the School's Nondiscrimination Policy.

Options and Pathways for Proceeding through the Program

Options and Pathways for Proceeding through the Program

Course Equivalencies and Substitution

If you believe that you have taken coursework equivalent to one or more courses in the Single Subject Program, complete a Petition for Waiver of School of Education Requirements. Submit the petition to the course instructor along with justification for its equivalency; include supporting documentation, such as a transcript copy, catalog description of the course, and syllabus or reading list. Waiver petitions may be obtained by contacting the Credentials Office.

Extended Programs and Leaves of Absence

You may extend the credential program to more than two semesters in special circumstances, such as family or work obligations, the need for additional coursework, or hardship. You must request such an extension in writing, using the Leave of Absence form (or see Appendix) supplied for this purpose.

A Leave of Absence is a formal leave from the program for a semester. If you need to take a Leave of Absence you must submit the Leave of Absence form for approval by the Program Advisor and the Department Chair. While on leave, you must notify the Department Chair of your intention to return to the program the following semester. This notification should be submitted in writing by November 1 for the Spring semester or April 1 for the Fall semester. This is extremely important so that program requirements such as field placement can be arranged in a timely manner. Leaves of Absence are granted for one semester only and additional leaves are subject to approval of the Department Chair. Students who are enrolled in the program for more than a total of FIVE semesters are subject to review by the CSSE faculty and may be removed from the program pending review. Forms may be obtained by contacting the Credentials Office.

Single Subject Credential Program Intern Pathway

The purpose of the Single Subject Credential Program Intern Pathway is to provide an alternative means for candidates to complete a single subject credential program. This pathway allows candidates to be employed by a school district, and mentored by a district employed supervisor (or DES), while completing the single subject teaching credential. In most cases the DES is a practicing teacher but can also be a teacher on special assignment, instructional coach, etc. 

This pathway is not meant for everyone. It requires candidates to be more immersed as a teacher of record, which requires instructional planning and assessing, on top of completing assignments and readings for the credential program coursework. We recommend that candidates considering the Intern Pathway enter the credential program with prior classroom teaching experience (e.g., paraprofessional, long term or ongoing substitute teaching). We also recommend those on the Intern Pathway consider extending the program from one to two years so that there is less coursework per semester. 


Standard Pathway

Intern Pathway

Employment and Responsibilities

Student at Sonoma State

Student at Sonoma State and employee of the school district. Must adhere to all school district employee responsibilities.   

District Employed Supervisor (DES): Your mentorship

Mentor teacher assigned by Sonoma State in partnership with the district/school site. You observe/participate (Fall) and student teach (Spring) in the mentor teacher’s classroom under their supervision. 

Mentor teacher, TOSA, administrator, or other district personnel assigned by Sonoma State in partnership with the district/school site. You are the teacher of record, but the DES is responsible for observing and supporting you weekly. 

Hours for Observation/

Participation and Student Teaching

Fall: 100 hours (~6-8 hours/week)


Spring: 340 hours (~16-18 hours/week for 18 weeks)

Fall: 100 hours (~6-8 hours/week). These hours count as mentoring/supervision observation and support. 


Spring: 340 hours (~16-18 hours/week for 18 weeks). The classes you teach as an intern DO count toward the hours. 44 of these hours (~2-3 per week) must include support/mentoring and/or observation from the DES and/or university supervisor. 

English Learner (EL), Bilingual, MM Disabilities, and and edTPA support

EL Support: EDSS 446 (Fall)


receive instruction on teaching children with mild and moderate disabilities through EDSP 430.


edTPA Support: EDSS 458 (Spring). Must pass edTPA to be recommended for a preliminary credential. 


EL Support: EDSS 446 (Fall, 30 hours). Additional 15 hours of EL support must be provided by your district/school/DES. 


Interns can only teach children in bilingual classes if you are adding the Bilingual Authorization, which includes learning about culture (CALS 456) and methods (EDMS 465 and  SPAN 427) of teaching bilingual children


receive instruction on teaching children with mild and moderate disabilities through EDSP 430.


edTPA Support: EDSS 458 (Spring). Must pass edTPA to be recommended for a preliminary credential. Must be provided with sufficient time by the school site to work on edTPA in Spring. 


Coursework is Identical for the Standard and Intern Pathway. See Program Structure Section in the Handbook. 

Annual Evaluation

Evaluated by the University Supervisor and Mentor Teacher/District Employed Supervisor using the Phase 2 Clinical Practice EvaluationStudent Teaching Performance Evaluation Forms.docx


Intern Eligibility and Stipulations 

Candidates are only eligible to be an Intern in Phase II of the Single Subject Credential Program.  Each intern certificate will be valid for a period of two years.

In exceptional cases, candidates may be recommended to begin the Intern Pathway during Phase I by being hired on a Provisional Internship Permit (PIP) or Short-Term Staff Permit (STSP).  A PIP or STSP is typically an option when a candidate comes in with 3+ years of prior teaching experience. Candidates who are hired on an Emergency Permit or 30 Day Sub Permit are not eligible for the intern pathway and hour teaching under these permits will not count towards fieldwork requirements.

To be Intern Eligible, a teacher candidate must…

  • Meet ALL requirements for admission into the SSU Single Subject Credential Program

  • Baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university

  • Basic Skills 

  • Subject Matter Competence 

  • Character and identification clearance (fingerprints)

  • Demonstrated knowledge of the U.S. Constitution 

  • Meet with the CSSE Department Chair (virtually or in person) to understand  challenges that may arise from being on the Intern Pathway and develop a plan for completing program requirements as an Intern

  • Email a written verification of employment on district letterhead to the CSSE Department Chair and School of Education Intern Coordinator. The verification of employment  must include:

1. Your name

2. Teaching position/program (with SPECIFIC courses to teach)

3. Percentage of time in position

4. Credential or Permit type you will be teaching on (Intern, PIP, STSP, TPSL)

5. Start date and end date

6. District Employee Supervisor Name - who will mentor you (the Single Subject Placement Coordinator will work with the school or district to identity this district employed supervisor)

7. Signature of district representative

  • Receive a recommendation from the Single Subject Credential Program Department Chair (Department Chair will email this to the Candidate and School of Education Intern Coordinator)

  • Complete the prerequisite courses and all Phase I program courses in the single subject credential program with a GPA of 3.0 or above

Additional Stipulations and Recommendations

  • Must be hired at .4 FTE or above (can be employed on a PIP/STP for less than .4 FTE)

  • Candidates are strongly discouraged from being employed for 1.0 FTE in the Fall, unless they (1) are on the extended (i.e., 4 semester) program and/or (2) have one or more program courses waived. If a candidate is requesting EDSS 443B be waived due to 3+ years of full time teaching (not substitute teaching) experience, then the candidate must verify training in restorative practice and trauma-informed strategies. 

  • ALL courses assigned must be those that the candidate’s credential being earned will qualify them to teach (e.g., a candidate earning a preliminary single subject math credential cannot teach a chemistry class as an intern).

  • Internships that require a placement change (e.g., changing schools) are conditional upon finding a qualified district employed supervisor (DES) to mentor the intern. If a DES cannot be found, then the candidate must remain at the currently assigned placement site. 

  • Candidates in a residency program are not eligible to be interns

  • All intern teachers must pass the edTPA (i.e., the teaching performance assessment) to receive a preliminary teaching credential and must be provided with the time and mentor support to complete the edTPA. 

  • Employment must last for at least 14 weeks each semester (e.g. typically by about September 15th for the Fall and February 1st for the Spring)

  • As an intern teacher, you are required to receive an additional 45 hours per year of support/mentoring and supervision specific to meeting the needs of English learners.

Intern Pathway Timeline 

  1. (March-May) BE ACCEPTED INTO THE SINGLE SUBJECT CREDENTIAL PROGRAM. Upon admission to the Single Subject Credential Program, a placement coordinator will meet with each applicant to help identify an appropriate placement site and mentor teacher. The placement coordinator will also note the applicant’s interest in the Intern Pathway and communicate eligibility, stipulations, and process.

  2. (May-June) GET RECOMMENDED. The Single Subject Credential Program Faculty will discuss and recommend interested and eligible candidates using the eligibility requirements and recommendation considerations listed in this document. The CSSE Department Chair will also contact and meet with the candidate to discuss challenges that may arise from being on the Intern Pathway and develop a plan for completing program requirements as an Intern if recommended. Any concerns raised from program faculty may be discussed during the meeting as well. The CSSE Department Chair will notify candidates if they have been recommended or not. 

If a candidate becomes interested in the Intern Pathway during Phase I, the candidate should immediately contact the CSSE Department Chair immediately to be recommended by the program faculty

  1. (June-December). GET AN OFFER OF EMPLOYMENT. If there is an Intern Position available, the CSSE Department Chair will notify any suitable and recommended candidates and cc the School of Education Intern Coordinator. The School of Education Intern Coordinator will then work with the candidate, the school district/school site, and the single subject placement coordinator to receive the official job offer, find an approved District Employed Supervisor, discuss remaining Intern Requirements, and update the change of placement records. 



  1. (January, unless approved to begin during the Fall semester). BEGIN WORK AS AN INTERN AND FULFILL ALL INTERN REQUIREMENTS.

Early Completion Option

The Sonoma State University Single Subject Intern pathway makes available to those who qualify for the option the opportunity to choose an early program completion option, culminating in a five year preliminary teaching credential. To fulfill this option, the intern must: 

  • (a) Pass a written assessment adopted by the commission that assesses knowledge of teaching foundations as well as all of the following: 

    • Human development as it relates to teaching and learning aligned with the state content and performance standards for K-12 students

    •  Techniques to address learning differences, including working with students with special needs 

    • Techniques to address working with English learners to provide access to the curriculum

    •  Reading instruction in accordance with state standards 

    • Assessment of student progress based on the state content and performance standards 

    • Classroom management techniques ‘Methods of teaching the subject fields 

  • (b) Pass the teaching performance assessment. This assessment may be taken only one time by an intern participating in the early completion option. 

  • (c) Meet the requirements for teacher fitness.

More details here:

Application for Early Completion Option:

To apply, send an email to the School of Education Intern Coordinator, Suzanne O’Keefe at with the required documentation. 

Completing the Program and Beyond

Completing the Program and Beyond

When you have completed all the Single Subject Program requirements as described in this Handbook, you will be eligible for a Preliminary Single Subject Teaching Credential in your subject area. Towards the end of your Phase II student teaching semester you need to submit a formal application for your credential. This section describes the application process briefly. You will receive further details of the process in a meeting with the Credentials Analyst during your Phase II seminar.

Before Phase II

Most documents needed for the credential application should already be on file in the Credentials Office prior to your student teaching in Phase II. They include:

  • Transcripts from all accredited colleges and universities attended

  • Photocopy of verification of passing CBEST if you did not have results sent directly to Sonoma State

  • Signed Subject Matter Waiver Program Completion Form or photocopy of CSET results if results were not sent to Sonoma State

  • Certificate of Clearance or a copy of Emergency 30-Day (or other Permit)

  • Petitions for course substitutions (if applicable)

During Phase II

Follow the steps below:

  1. Attend a meeting with the Credential Analyst during your Student Teaching Seminar regarding credential application process.

  2. Obtain application materials at the Credentials Office or in the Student Teaching Seminar.

  3. Complete workshop for infant/child/adult CPR training.

  4. Complete application forms as instructed.

  5. Submit application materials to the Credentials Analyst towards the end of your student teaching semester. Please note: the Credentials Analyst cannot file for your credential until grades are posted on your transcript.

After Phase II

Once the Credentials Analyst has filed for your credential with the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC), you will receive an email requesting online payment to CTC for the credential. Your credential will be issued within 10-14 business days after you make your payment. The official document will be mailed to you directly.

Options for Additional Study

In addition to your primary content area, you may also add other subject areas to your credential. Subject Matter Authorizations and Supplementary Authorizations are available in over 50 areas and various areas. In the case of very specific areas—for example, chemistry, geography, or photography—the supplement allows you to teach any class in that subject in grades kindergarten through 12. In the case of broader areas—such as general science, social science, art, or mathematics—it authorizes you to teach introductory classes in that area, covering content that is normally taught at the 9th grade level or below. You can qualify for either of these authorizations if you have a minimum of 32 college level semester units or a bachelor’s degree in the subject area.

A teacher who holds a Subject Matter/Supplementary Authorization in one or more fields is more attractive to potential employers who need flexibility among their faculty for scheduling and expanding their curriculum options. In more specialized areas such as music, art, foreign language, and physical education, a school often cannot support a full-time position in that area alone but can afford to hire someone who can teach in two or three different areas. For these reasons, you should try to add supplements to your credential if you possibly can. You may be able to take courses toward this goal during your credential program. You don’t need to finish coursework before earning your credential; you may continue working toward it and add it at a later date. The Credentials Office has literature describing the supplements and can tell you how to go about submitting an application when ready.

Full Authorization in a Second Subject Area

Once you’ve earned the Single Subject Teaching Credential in your primary content area, you can add full authorization to teach in a second area by taking the appropriate methods of teaching course and passing the CSET in that content area. This applies only to those areas in which basic credentials are offered, such as physical science, English, or music. You may add this authorization at any time after earning your basic credential by submitting the appropriate documents to the Credentials Office.

Notice of Delay Policy

When a person applies for a Certificate of Clearance or a credential via the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC), a thorough background check is performed by the CTC. In some cases, if an applicant has a previous record, the CTC requests additional documentation before a Certificate of Clearance or credential can be granted. This may result in an applicant appearing on a Notice of Delay list. The policy below describes the implications of appearing on such a list would have on a School of Education student.

If you have a previous record and would like to discuss the clearance process prior to applying for your Certificate of Clearance, please contact our Credentials Office at or 707-664-2832.

TPE’s in Single Subject

TPE’s in Single Subject

The Teacher Performance Expectations

The Single Subject Credential Program is designed to meet and exceed the standards for quality and effectiveness for professional teacher preparation programs in California and nationwide. Every graduate of the program must meet the following Teaching Performance Expectations (TPEs), organized into six areas of competence:

TPE 1: Engaging and Supporting All Students in Learning

Beginning teachers:

  1. Apply knowledge of students, including their prior experiences, interests, and social/emotional learning needs, as well as their funds of knowledge and cultural, language, and socioeconomic backgrounds, to engage them in learning.

  2. Maintain ongoing communication with students and families, including the use of technology to communicate with and support students and families, and to communicate achievement expectations and student progress.

  3. Connect subject matter to real-life contexts and provide active learning experiences to engage student interest, support student motivation, and allow students to extend their learning.

  4. Use a variety of developmentally and ability-appropriate instructional strategies, resources, and assistive technology, including principles of Universal Design of Learning (UDL) and Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) to support access to the curriculum for a wide range of learners within the general education classroom and environment.

  5. Promote students' critical and creative thinking and analysis through activities that provide opportunities for inquiry, problem solving, responding to and framing meaningful questions, and reflection.

  6. Provide a supportive learning environment for students' first and/or second language acquisition by using research-based instructional approaches, including focused English Language Development, Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE), scaffolding across content areas, and structured English immersion, and demonstrate an understanding of the difference among students whose only instructional need is to acquire Standard English proficiency, students who may have an identified disability affecting their ability to acquire Standard English proficiency, and students who may have both a need to acquire Standard English proficiency and an identified disability.

  7. Provide students with opportunities to access the curriculum by incorporating the visual and performing arts, as appropriate to the content and context of learning.

  8. Monitor student learning and adjust instruction while teaching so that students continue to be actively engaged in learning.

TPE 2: Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning

Beginning teachers:

  1. Promote students' social-emotional growth, development, and individual responsibility using positive interventions and supports, restorative justice, and conflict resolution practices to foster a caring community where each student is treated fairly and respectfully by adults and peers.

  2. Create learning environments (i.e., traditional, blended, and online) that promote productive student learning, encourage positive interactions among students, reflect diversity and multiple perspectives, and are culturally responsive.

  3. Establish, maintain, and monitor inclusive learning environments that are physically, mentally, intellectually, and emotionally healthy and safe to enable all students to learn, and recognize and appropriately address instances of intolerance and harassment among students, such as bullying, racism, and sexism.

  4. Know how to access resources to support students, including those who have experienced trauma, homelessness, foster care, incarceration, and/or are medically fragile.

  5. Maintain high expectations for learning with appropriate support for the full range of students in the classroom.

  6. Establish and maintain clear expectations for positive classroom behavior and for student-to-student and student-to-teacher interactions by communicating classroom routines, procedures, and norms to students and families.

TPE 3: Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning

Beginning teachers:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of subject matter, including the adopted California State Standards and curriculum frameworks.

  2. Use knowledge about students and learning goals to organize the curriculum to facilitate student understanding of subject matter, and make accommodations and/or modifications as needed to promote student access to the curriculum.

  3. Plan, design, implement, and monitor instruction consistent with current subject-specific pedagogy in the content area(s) of instruction, and design and implement disciplinary and cross-disciplinary learning sequences, including integrating the visual and performing arts as applicable to the discipline.1

  4. Individually and through consultation and collaboration with other educators and members of the larger school community, plan for effective subject matter instruction and use multiple means of representing, expressing, and engaging students to demonstrate their knowledge.

  5. Adapt subject matter curriculum, organization, and planning to support the acquisition and use of academic language within learning activities to promote the subject matter knowledge of all students, including the full range of English learners, Standard English learners, students with disabilities, and students with other learning needs in the least restrictive environment.

  6. Use and adapt resources, standards-aligned instructional materials, and a range of technology, including assistive technology, to facilitate students' equitable access to the curriculum.

  7. Model and develop digital literacy by using technology to engage students and support their learning, and promote digital citizenship, including respecting copyright law, understanding fair use guidelines and the use of Creative Commons license, and maintaining Internet security.

  8. Demonstrate knowledge of effective teaching strategies aligned with the internationally recognized educational technology standards.

TPE 4: Planning Instruction & Designing Learning Experiences for All Students

Beginning teachers:

  1. Locate and apply information about students' current academic status, content- and standards-related learning needs and goals, assessment data, language proficiency status, and cultural background for both short-term and long-term instructional planning purposes.

  2. Understand and apply knowledge of the range and characteristics of typical and a typical child development from birth through adolescence to help inform instructional planning and learning experiences for all students.

  3. Design and implement instruction and assessment that reflects the interconnectedness of academic content areas and related student skills development in literacy, mathematics, science, and other disciplines across the curriculum, as applicable to the subject area of instruction.

  4. Plan, design, implement and monitor instruction, making effective use of instructional time to maximize learning opportunities and provide access to the curriculum for all students by removing barriers and providing access through instructional strategies that include:

    1. appropriate use of instructional technology, including assistive technology;

    2. applying principles of UDL and MTSS;

    3. use of developmentally, linguistically, and culturally appropriate learning activities, instructional materials, and resources for all students, including the full range of English learners;

    4. appropriate modifications for students with disabilities in the general education classroom;

    5. opportunities for students to support each other in learning; and

    6. use of community resources and services as applicable.

  5. Promote student success by providing opportunities for students to understand and advocate for strategies that meet their individual learning needs and assist students with specific learning needs to successfully participate in transition plans (e.g., IEP, IFSP, ITP, and 504 plans.)

  6. Access resources for planning and instruction, including the expertise of community and school colleagues through in-person or virtual collaboration, co-teaching, coaching, and/or networking.

  7. Plan instruction that promotes a range of communication strategies and activity modes between teacher and student and among students that encourage student participation in learning.

  8. Use digital tools and learning technologies across learning environments as appropriate to create new content and provide personalized and integrated technology-rich lessons to engage students in learning, promote digital literacy, and offer students multiple means to demonstrate their learning.

TPE 5: Assessing Student Learning

  1. Apply knowledge of the purposes, characteristics, and appropriate uses of different types of assessments (e.g., diagnostic, informal, formal, progress- monitoring, formative, summative, and performance) to design and administer classroom assessments, including use of scoring rubrics.

  2. Collect and analyze assessment data from multiple measures and sources to plan and modify instruction and document students' learning over time.

  3. Involve all students in self-assessment and reflection on their learning goals and progress and provide students with opportunities to revise or reframe their work based on assessment feedback.

  4. Use technology as appropriate to support assessment administration, conduct data analysis, and communicate learning outcomes to students and families.

  5. Use assessment information in a timely manner to assist students and families in understanding student progress in meeting learning goals.

  6. Work with specialists to interpret assessment results from formative and summative assessments to distinguish between students whose first language is English, English learners, Standard English learners, and students with language or other disabilities.

  7. Interpret English learners' assessment data to identify their level of academic proficiency in English as well as in their primary language, as applicable, and use this information in planning instruction.

  8. Use assessment data, including information from students' IEP, IFSP, ITP, and 504 plans, to establish learning goals and to plan, differentiate, make accommodations and/or modify instruction.

TPE 6: Developing as a Professional Educator 

Beginning teachers:

  1. Reflect on their own teaching practice and level of subject matter and pedagogical knowledge to plan and implement instruction that can improve student learning.

  2. Recognize their own values and implicit and explicit biases, the ways in which these values and implicit and explicit biases may positively and negatively affect teaching and learning, and work to mitigate any negative impact on the teaching and learning of students. They exhibit positive dispositions of caring, support, acceptance, and fairness toward all students and families, as well as toward their colleagues.

  3. Establish professional learning goals and make progress to improve their practice by routinely engaging in communication and inquiry with colleagues.

  4. Demonstrate how and when to involve other adults and to communicate effectively with peers and colleagues, families, and members of the larger school community to support teacher and student learning.

  5. Demonstrate professional responsibility for all aspects of student learning and classroom management, including responsibility for the learning outcomes of all students, along with appropriate concerns and policies regarding the privacy, health, and safety of students and families. Beginning teachers conduct themselves with integrity and model ethical conduct for themselves and others.

  6. Understand and enact professional roles and responsibilities as mandated reporters and comply with all laws concerning professional responsibilities, professional conduct, and moral fitness, including the responsible use of social media and other digital platforms and tools.

  7. Critically analyze how the context, structure, and history of public education in California affects and influences state, district, and school governance as well as state and local education finance.

Literacy Practices in Relation to Subject-Specific Pedagogy

Meaning making:  They help students understand that meaning making is the central purpose of reading, writing, oral/signed language, and all other forms of communication in all subjects. Beginning teachers effectively apply their knowledge of factors that affect meaning making, such as, for example, students’ background knowledge and experiences (including cultural and linguistic funds of knowledge), language (including students’ academic language), and motivation (including connections to their daily lives and interests). They design lessons that capitalize on and enrich students’ knowledge and language, draw on and expand students’ interests and experiences, and help motivate students’ interest in the content of the curriculum.  

Language development: They design instruction and create environments that foster language development for all students, including English learners. They provide opportunities and models for students to develop oral and written communication skills. They plan for and foster students’ use of general academic and subject-specific language across the content areas. They understand the advantages of multilingualism and multiliteracy, how becoming increasingly literate in one language supports and enhances literacy in another language, as well as the importance of transfer between languages, and they are able to support their students in transferring skills across their multiple languages.

Effective expression: They support students’ ability to effectively express themselves in each content area as well as their ability to analyze the effectiveness of text, presentations, visual representations, and other forms of communication specific to each content area. They demonstrate an understanding of the value of translanguaging techniques as an effective practice when supporting the development of expression in a variety of contexts.

Content knowledge: They plan and implement literacy-based lessons and discipline-specific literacy practices that contribute to building students’ content knowledge

Foundational skills: They plan and implement lessons that address the foundational skills of literacy (e.g., decoding and word recognition) in the context of the content area(s) of instruction, as appropriate based on students’ needs and students’ literacy level.

Single Subject Credential Program Teacher Candidate Handbook Document